A 2019 Australian Federal Election Policy Guide









The South China Sea, Chinese corporate investment, Chinese influence in Australia and other issues. 

Source: https://www.abc.net.au/news/image/10712374-3x2-700x467.jpg

As Beijing looked to expand its global position, particularly with an increased presence in the Pacific, Australia sat up and took notice. Policy moves, diplomatic clashes and deals that shaped an interesting year in the complex Australia-China relationship.


A December article by ABC reporters Jason Fang, Jack Kilbride and Tracey Shelton cited a range of issues that impacted Australia - Chinese relations which will heavily influence the voting intentions of Chinese Australian citizens eligible to vote in the 2019 election. Here they are - 




1. Canberra passed anti-foreign intervention laws and banned foreign donations to political parties.


Amid growing concerns about Beijing's influence in Australian politics, the Government passed controversial legislation in June to limit and control the influence of overseas players in Australian affairs.


The new laws strengthened foreign espionage offences, and forced people working for foreign companies and governments to declare their activities.


Former politicians lobbying for foreign-owned companies or governments, and people trying to disrupt Australia's democracy, will face stricter controls after Parliament passed new laws with bipartisan support for the foreign interference bills The new laws strengthen foreign espionage offences, and would also force people working for foreign companies and governments to declare their activities.


Former Cabinet ministers, politicians, staffers and public servants would be subject to even more stringent reporting responsibilities, given their access to the upper echelons of the political and business class.


Labor’s Senator Wong commented


"This legislation… declares that this Parliament will not allow interference in our elections or in our democratic processes. "We will not allow these to be subject to foreign interference, and we will not allow the covert subversion of our politics by foreign interests”.


All foreign political party donations were also banned, including from Chinese businesses that are by far the largest foreign donors in Australian politics. (See Appendix … for an overview of this change).


Beijing was furious, with Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesman Lu Kang calling on Australia and other countries to


"abandon the Cold War mentality and better promote mutual exchanges and cooperation on the basis of mutual respect and equal treatment."


The Chinese foreign minister was quoted as telling Australia to


"take off the tinted glasses [and] see China's development from a positive perspective" if it really wanted to get relations back on track "


Tinted glasses" is Chinese diplomatic shorthand for what it sees as Western bias.


2     Victoria and China signed a 'Belt and Road' MOU


Two companies whose bid for Ausgrid in NSW in 2016 were blocked by Scott Morrison own significant shares in Australia's privatised state power distributors. National security agencies were, in the words of one defence source, "unanimous and unequivocal" in their advice to slap down the bid.


Owning strategic infrastructure, like ports and power, is a declared part of Chinese foreign and strategic policy. It is a crucial element in the efforts to economically dominate Eurasia through the "one belt one road" initiative.


In the lead-up to the 2018 state election, Premier Daniel Andrews made Victoria the first Australian state to sign a Memorandum of Understanding on China's "One Belt One Road" initiative (BRI), in the hope that it would bring more trade and employment opportunities.


The deal actually proved to reveal very little, simply stating that Victoria and China would look to cooperate closely on a range of projects in the future without locking in either party to anything concrete. 68 countries including New Zealand have signed the BRI, which marks China's ambitious plan to expand its influence in the region and beyond.


Officially, Australia remains unwilling to participate in the divisive BRI, which lead to Mr Andrews receiving heavy criticism from the Prime Minister for entering into “foreign affairs”.


Ms Jakobson, of China Matters, said there had been "too many misunderstandings" of the Belt and Road Initiative in Australia. "The initiative is set on a project-by-project basis. It does not suggest the Victorian Government have committed to do anything that would endanger the national interest of Australia."



3. Chinese company Huawei was banned from participating in 5G construction Chinese company Huawei was blocked from participating in the 5G roll-out in Australia.


The Government stated that Huawei was "likely subject to extrajudicial directions from a foreign government that conflict with Australian law". Under Chinese law, companies are required to provide information to the Government and participate in state espionage if they are ordered to do so.


Huawei has insisted that it is a 100 per cent private company that is not influenced by the strings of the Communist party. The decision was a major blow for the tech giant and prompted China's Foreign Ministry to urge Australia to "abandon ideological prejudice".


4      China blocks ABC website In August.


China's cyber security regulator decided to abruptly block the ABC's website from Chinese servers. An official from the Office of the Central Cyberspace Affairs Commission told the ABC that the site had been blocked for "violating China's laws and regulations".


Access to the ABC site stopped the day after the Australian Government announced rules that would block two Chinese telecommunications companies from participating in the roll-out of the 5G infrastructure network.


5.    Australia drew attention to the Uyghur internment camps human rights issue Reports and allegations of gross human rights abuses in China's Xinjiang province captured the world's attention in 2018.


Satellite imagery lifted the lid on the size and spread of China's internment camps. These camps are, among other things, used to indoctrinate vast numbers of the Xinjiang region's Muslim population.


The United Nations estimates that up to 1 million Uyghurs, Kazakhs and other minorities are allegedly detained in the region, and an ABC investigation and analysis of satellite imagery suggests that China has drastically expanded at least 28 camps and facilities in recent years.


Foreign Minister Marise Payne said she had a "comprehensive and frank discussion" with the Chinese Foreign Minister on the human rights issue in Xinjiang during her visit to China in November 2018.


Labor has also condemned the alleged abuses, calling on the Government to increase pressure on Beijing over its actions in the province.


China has denied all international claims that it is detaining citizens in camps, claiming that authorities had simply cracked down on "violent terrorist activities" in the region and that other nations should ignore "gossip".


After initial blanket denials, Chinese officials in October released details of a network of 'vocational training' centres which they said were needed to counter terrorism and extremism.


6.    Qantas was among airlines pressured by China over the territorial status of Taiwan China's aviation regulator gave three dozen airlines, including Qantas, a May 25 deadline to remove references on their websites and in other material that suggest Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau are countries independent of China.


Qantas eventually bowed to pressure from Beijing, referring to Taiwan as a Chinese territory, rather than a nation. Officially, Australia acknowledges the Chinese Government's position that Taiwan is a province of the People's Republic of China.

Huang Xiangmo (left) alongside Malcolm Turnbull at Chinese New Year celebrations in Sydney in 2016.

Putting those issues to one side, three more significant events that happened in 2018 will be in the minds of Chinese voters at the ballot box in the 2019 Federal election.


7       Government blocking of further Chinese company attempts to control Australian Energy Resources.



In June 2018, Hong Kong investment giant Cheung Kong Infrastructure lodged a $13Billion take-over bid for Australia’s biggest gas network, APA.


This bid was is important given the reality that gas now shapes the price of electricity bills in Australia. CHEUNG KONG Infrastructure[CK] already owns a big slice of Australian energy assets.


These include a controlling stake in Victoria’s largest electricity companies Citipower and Powercor and ETSA in South Australia. The company had previously launched a successful takeover of the DUET group which owned a collection of gas pipelines, powerlines and electricity generators and 19.3 % of Evenstra.


Evanstra runs 21,000 kilometres of gas pipelines serving a million businesses and homes in Australia. APA owns 15,000 kilometres of gas pipelines across Australia, with its network supplying 1.3 million homes and businesses, predominantly along the eastern seaboard. APA and Envestra are the dominant two players in Australian gas distribution, effectively a duopoly.


The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission has long held concerns about pricing in an industry that is largely a duopoly already, and only lightly regulated. Peter Jennings from the Australian Strategic Policy Institute argued any takeover would give CK control of around 70 per cent of the nation's critical energy infrastructure.


"I think that's a vulnerability to have so much critical infrastructure in the hands of, or essentially at the control of Chinese companies.”


The Cheung Kong attempt to takeover APA was eventually stopped by the new Treasurer Josh Freydenberg after Scott Morrison became Prime Minister on “National Security” grounds.


"I have formed this view on the basis that it would result in a single foreign company group having sole ownership and control over Australia's most significant gas-transmission business," Mr Frydenberg said.


Cheung Kong had earlier been knocked back in a joint bid with China State Grid Corporation to buy the NSW electricity distributor, AusgriD.



8       The South China Sea



In November 2018, the Australian Government announced that it will join the USA in taking a more aggressive geographical placement of defence resources on a Manus Island naval base to combat the Chinese dominance of South China Sea, territorial disputes and to “protect Pacific maritime routes”.


Chinese-language speakers, class-mobile and aspirational, have previously swung against the Liberals where perceived racism overcame economic interest in Barton, Reid which is held by the current Assistant Minister for Multicultural Affairs and Banks [30 percent Chinese] where rallies have been hosted in support of the People’s Republic interest in the South China Sea.




The South China Sea disputes involve both island and maritime claims among several sovereign states within the region, namely Brunei, the People's Republic of China (PRC), Republic of China (Taiwan), Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam.


An estimated US $5 trillion worth of global trade passes through the South China Sea annually. Many non-claimant states want the South China Sea to remain international waters.


To promote this, several states, including the United States, conduct "freedom of navigation" operations. Claimant states are interested in retaining or acquiring - the rights to fishing areas, - the exploration and potential exploitation of crude oil and natural gas in the seabed of various parts of the South China Sea, - and the strategic control of important shipping lanes.


In July 2016, an arbitration tribunal constituted under Annex VII of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) ruled against the PRC's maritime claims in Philippines v. China.


The People's Republic of China and the Republic of China (Taiwan) stated that they did not recognise the tribunal and insisted that the matter should be resolved through bilateral negotiations with other claimants.


However, the tribunal did not rule on the ownership of the islands or delimit maritime boundaries. Hillary Clinton, then United States Secretary of State, voiced her support for fair access by reiterating that freedom of navigation and respect for international law is a matter of national interest to the United States.


Her comments were countered by China's Foreign Minister Yang Jiechi as "in effect an attack on China," who warned the United States against making the South China Sea an international issue or multilateral issue.


Clinton testified in support of congressional approval of the Law of the Sea Convention, which would strengthen U.S. ability to support countries that oppose Chinese claims to certain islands in the area.


In July 2012, the United States Senate passed resolution 524, initially sponsored by Senator John Kerry, stating (among other things) the United States' strong support for the 2002 declaration of conduct of parties in the South China Sea, reaffirms the United States' commitment to assist the nations of Southeast Asia to remain strong and independent, and supports enhanced operations by the United States armed forces in the Western Pacific.


In 2014, President Obama warned China:


"We believe that international law must be upheld, that freedom of navigation must be preserved and commerce must not be impeded”.



9 The Politics of Trade Route Protection and Regional Development



In 2018, Vice-President Mike Pence announced the US will partner with Australia and Papua New Guinea to redevelop the Manus Island naval base.


"We will work with these nations to protect the sovereignty and maritime routes of Pacific Island nations,"


Defence Minister Christopher Pyne confirmed Australian vessels would probably be based permanently at Lombrum under the deal. China has been steadily building its influence in the Pacific, but Mr Pence again accused Beijing of using debt-trap diplomacy to coerce small nations.


"Do not accept debt that could compromise your sovereignty. Protect your interests. Know that the United States offers a better option. We don't drown our partners in a sea of debt, we don't coerce or compromise your independence, we deal openly and fairly."


Mr Xi rejected the US position.


This policy was received as an aggressive act towards the Chinese government. It constituted


- an extension of the so called ‘trade war’ between the USA and China,


- a challenge to the Chinese dominance of the trade lanes of the South China sea and - an aspiration to offer smaller Island States alternatives to the acceptance of Chinese financial loans and funding.


- The intention is to curb Chinese control and influence over island States and trade lanes in southern-ocean areas.


"No-one has the power to stop people from seeking a better life. We should strengthen development cooperation,"


The move comes as the US, China and Australia all vie for influence in PNG and the Pacific, and one analyst said the Manus base would push American forces further south into the Pacific than they had been in decades.


A former Manus Island MP says Australia and Papua New Guinea's deal to jointly redevelop a naval base on the island has been "bulldozed" through without discussion with locals. Ronnie Knight says there was no discussion with locals about the deal



Manus Island Tourism.


Chairman Ben Pokarop told the ABC he was unaware of the joint naval base and was "shocked to have another activity that is so big" on the back of the detention centre, stating it could have negative effects for the tourism industry.


The Governor of Manus has slammed Australia over plans to redevelop a joint naval base on the island in Papua New Guinea, saying he has never been consulted on the deal.


Governor Benjamin said the plan is in the interests of Australia and the US, not Manus locals The Lombrum Naval Base on Manus Island, which the Australian Defence Force ran for 25 years until PNG gained independence in 1975, would be capable of hosting Australian and American warships.






On January 19 2019, Scott Morrison Tweeted from Vanuatu 


"PM @ScottMorrisonMP arrives in Vanuatu. The PM is travelling to Vanuatu and Fiji, delivering on Australia’s stepped up engagement in the Pacific to support a stable and prosperous region"


 Rumours that China was in talks with Vanuatu to set up a military base in the country sparked alarm in Canberra last year. Despite assurances from Vanuatu that it was not happening, there is still a genuine concern about a Chinese military presence in the region among security officials.


Australia has been pushing a bilateral security deal with Vanuatu in its recent visits, but so far the country has declined. Despite this, General Campbell said all of his discussions in the country were positive.


"I think the relationship is very strong and naturally we will work together only as invited and in the forms that we're invited. That's the way to build neighbourhoods, to build communities and to have a strong relationship."




Australia is set to fund a military base in Fiji, beating China to the position of sole foreign donor. It is also partnering with Papua New Guinea and the United States to redevelop a naval base on Manus Island. During her visit to Papua New Guinea this month, Assistant Minister to the Pacific Anne Ruston said


"this is our region and we are the partner of choice".


But while Australia looks to beef up its security involvement in the region, it doesn't want other "outside" countries to do the same.


"Australia would be very concerned if anybody from outside the Pacific wanted to set up a military base in the Pacific. We would be working very hard with our Pacific neighbours to encourage them to think very, very carefully if they considered that to be the case,"


The Minister said Australia's moves are different because it was responding to a request for assistance from its neighbours. However, when asked what Australia's response would be if a Pacific nation asked China for assistance in this regard, she sounded a warning.


"We would certainly be speaking to the country and suggesting to them that the sovereignty of this area is secured by us not having military presence from external countries in the area."


Papua New Guinea's Foreign Affairs Minister, Rimbink Pato, doesn't share Australia's concerns about militarisation.


"The Pacific means the sea of peace, so peace will reign in the Pacific and we will take the necessary steps [to ensure that]. I do not think there is a focus to increase military presence by anybody in Papua New Guinea or our region."


The Chief of the Defence Force, General Angus Campbell, conceded his recent tour of the region was partly due to the Government's "step up" in the region. But when asked about the role China has played in the Government's new approach, he was careful not to use its name when replying.


"I think it's much more about a relationship between Australia and its immediate neighbours, and supporting countries that are seeking our assistance who may be fragile. There are many countries who work in this region, but Australia has always been here and is always going to be here."


Source: Natalie Whiting and Stephen Dziedzic. Australia ramps up rivalry with China for influence in the Pacific. ABC News Online 10 February 2019. 



10     Fresh Allegations of systemic Chinese Cyber Crime in Australia



Australian- Chinese relations in 2018 were closed out with the ABCs Matthew Doran’s report that Australian Government Foreign Minister, Marise Payne, stood in front of an Australian flag and an otherwise dark plain background to accuse the Chinese Government of systemic cyber hacking of Australian companies involved in Australian Defence projects, particularly the Australian Navy.


Australian officials have confirmed local companies are among the alleged global victims of an extensive campaign of cyber-attacks backed by the Chinese Government, aimed at stealing commercial intellectual property.


Marise Payne and Peter Dutton issued a statement voicing Australia's "serious concern" about the hacking allegations.


This was the first Australia ‘named and shamed’ Beijing for such behaviour, marking a change in rhetoric and diplomatic pressure from Canberra.


The confirmation came after the US Justice Department had recently charged two Chinese citizens who alleging carried out hacking at the direction of Beijing's Ministry of State Security.


Australian National Cyber Security adviser Alastair MacGibbon said the group had been targeting IT companies around the world that provide services to medium and large businesses.


"This is audacious, it is huge, and it impacts potentially thousands of businesses globally. We know there are victims in Australia” (RN Breakfast).


Australia's Ambassador for Cyber Affairs Tobias Feakin argued Australia was taking a big step in naming and shaming China for its support of hacking.


"This is incredibly significant, we've never done this before. This is the first time we've ever actually named this particular country in relation to this issue. The language that we're using, we feel, represents how strongly we feel about this, which is incredibly strong. As an international community, as Australia, we are now far more robust in the way that we will name and shame, and we will shine a light on activities that we think are unacceptable."



Foreign Minister Marise Payne and Home Affairs Minister Peter Dutton issued a statement shortly after US officials announced the charges, voicing Australia's "serious concern" about the hacking allegations.


"When it is in our interests to do so, Australia publicly attributes cyber incidents, especially those with the potential to undermine global economic growth, national security and international stability. Australia calls on all countries — including China — to uphold commitments to refrain from cyber-enabled theft of intellectual property, trade secrets and confidential business information with the intent of obtaining a competitive advantage. hese commitments were agreed by G20 leaders in 2015. Australia and China reaffirmed them bilaterally in 2017."


China's Foreign Ministry said on Friday it resolutely opposed "slanderous" accusations from the US and other allies criticising China for economic espionage and urged Washington to withdraw its accusations--


“The US should also withdraw charges against the two Chinese citizens. We urge the US to immediately correct its erroneous actions and cease its slanderous smears relating to internet security. It has long been an "open secret" that US government agencies have hacked into and listened in on foreign governments, companies and individuals…The US making unwarranted criticisms of China in the name of so-called 'cyber stealing' is blaming others while oneself is to be blamed and is self-deception. China absolutely cannot accept this."



Election Implications



There is a strong Chinese community presence in the Federal electorates of Reid, Barton, Banks and Parramatta in NSW, along with Chisolm and Isaacs in Victoria.


These three events will make it very difficult for the Liberal Party in seats with a strong Chinese community presence. The Liberals will struggle to regain Chisolm (3.4) after Liberal incumbent Julia Banks left the Liberals and announced she will stand as an Independent in 2019. The Chinese community in that seat will make this task tougher.


The Liberals slim chance of gaining Isaacs (5.7) and Parramatta (7.7) from the Labor Party will be further exacerbated by Chinese voter back-lash in these two electorates.


Most significantly, the Chinese influence in Barton (8.3) will make it make it difficult for the Liberal Party to regain this seat from the Labor Party and the prospects of retaining the two very marginal seats of Banks (1.4) with no ‘somophore surge’ to save it in 2019 and Reid (4.6) have become all the more vulnerable. Banks (NSW) 2.8 1.4 Somophore surge 1.4 Reid (NSW) 3.3 4.6 Unchanged + 1.3 ALP HELD Isaacs VIC ALP 5.7 Parramatta NSW ALP 7.7





A Chinese businessman's political donation web revealed Australia has stripped Chinese billionaire political donor Huang Xiangmo of permanent residency and killed off his citizenship application.


Huang Xiangmo and his companies have donated at least $2 million to Australian political parties. Authorities have rejected his bid for Australian citizenship and stripped his permanent residency


Australia's spy agency has previously warned political parties against accepting money from the billionaire Mr Huang quickly rose to become a leading pro-China lobbyist, courting politicians.


The decision from the Home Affairs Department, made while Mr Huang was offshore, leaves him unable to re-enter the country. The ABC confirmed the businessman's "right to return to Australia has been cancelled".


The Nine media group reported the application had been refused for a number of reasons, including on character grounds and because of concerns about the reliability of answers given during interviews. The ABC understands the decision to ban Mr Huang from Australia was delivered months ago.


A joint ABC-Fairfax investigation in 2017 revealed his bid for an Australian passport had stalled amid concerns among security agencies about Mr Huang and his links to the Chinese Communist Party.


Domestic spy agency ASIO, which scrutinised the citizenship request, previously warned the Liberal, Labor and National parties about taking cash from Mr Huang, fearing he could try to advance Beijing's interests. Some analysts predicted that Beijing would react angrily if any of its citizens were targeted under legislation designed to crack down on foreign interference.


Foreign Minister Marise Payne played down that possibility.


"[China] has not raised it with me and I don't expect to be the subject of a bilateral discussion. These are matters that occur from time to time. We have a good and constructive relationship based on mutual respect and engagement. If there were issues to be raised I'm sure we can address those."


Prime Minister Scott Morrison remained tight-lipped about the reports.


"The Government has always acted consistent with the advice that we've received and that's what has happened on this occasion"


Mr Huang was also president of a Communist Party-aligned body charged with promoting its interests — the Australian Council for the Promotion of the Peaceful Reunification of China.


Mr Dastyari's career as a Labor senator ended in 2018 over his links to Huang Xiangmo and China: Mr Dastyari


1    Allowed Mr Huang's Yuhu Group to pay a legal bill on his behalf;


2  Repeatedly approached the then-immigration department about the citizenship application.


3   Standing alongside the donor, he spoke against the ALP's policy on the South China Sea dispute ahead of the 2016 election, and


4  Reportedly warned Mr Huang his phone was probably being tapped by security agencies


Before the department's decision on Mr Huang, the controversial figure lived in a mansion boasting Sydney Harbour views in the exclusive suburb of Mosman.


Mr Huang's lawyer would not say whether an appeal would be launched to challenge the decision and his spokesman refused to comment. Mr Huang in 2017 denied having a relationship with the Chinese Communist Party.


Source: Dan Conifer and Stephanie Borys. Australia denies citizenship to Chinese political donor Huang Xiangmo and strips his permanent residency. ABC News Online. 7 February 2019. https://www.abc.net.au/news/2019-02-06/australia-denies-citizenship-chinese-businessman-huang-xiangmo/10784512?section=politics



Malcolm Turnbull orders inquiry following revelations ASIO warned parties about Chinese donations


By political editor Chris Uhlmann and political reporter Caitlyn Gribbin Updated 6 Jun 2017, 3:54pm


Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull has ordered a major inquiry into the nation's espionage and foreign interference laws, amid concerns about Chinese influence in Australian politics.


A 2017 Four Corners-Fairfax investigation discovered Australia's spy agency ASIO warned the Coalition and Labor about taking donations from two billionaires with links to the Chinese Communist Party.


Both parties continued to accept donations from the billionaires. The Coalition accepted $800,000 and Labor $200,000.


Between them, the businessmen and associated entities have donated about $6.7 million to the major parties over a decade. Labor senator Sam Dastyari personally contacted the Immigration Department twice to support one of the donors, Huang Xiangmo's, application for Australian citizenship.


Following the airing of the ABC investigation Senator Dastyari said in a statement he had cut all ties with the Chinese businessman. "After the events of last year, I spoke to Mr Huang to tell him that I did not think it was appropriate that we have future contact. I thought it was a matter of common courtesy to say this face to face. Neither my office or I have spoken to Mr Huang since."


Then Deputy Prime Minister Barnaby Joyce said he is very concerned about the revelations


"I absolutely abhor the idea that some other nation would have influence in our government, especially if is attached to a pecuniary benefit to any individual. There is a vast difference between a party getting a donation — there is no real direct benefit to a person. But if people are buying influence in our nation, well, we can't abide by that in any shape or form from any country, not just China, any country."



Mr Joyce also indicated support for changing the laws to ban foreign donations but said it should be broader than just the political parties.


Opposition Leader Bill Shorten re-affirmed Labor's commitment to take


"direct and indirect foreign influence out of our electionsI do not want these two individuals who were named on Four Corners to be making donations to the Labor Party, and I have made it clear before last night that I don't want our party accepting donations from these people," he said.


An ABC investigation of recent political donations from the past two years reveals Chinese businesses are by far the largest foreign-linked donors to both major parties. Between 2013 and 2015 Chinese-linked companies and individual donors poured more than $5.5 million into Liberal and Labor party coffers.


Analysts say Chinese political donations are oneway Beijing seeks to gain influence in Australia.




Donor                              Year                       Amount            Recipient


Wang Zi Chun    2013-14                 $850,000        Labor Party 


Chau Chak Wing 2013-14                $650,000         Labor Party (federal)   

                              2013-14                 $540,000         Liberal Party

                              2013-14                 $100,000         National Party

                              2013-14                 $65,000            Labor Party (NSW branch).


Yuhu Group          2013-14                $425,000           Liberal Party (various branches)

                               2013-14                $100,000           Labor Party (federal)


Anna Wu Meijuan 2013-14 $50,000 Liberal Party (WA branch)


Xu Jingui 2013-14 $400,000 Labor Party (NSW branch)


Zhaokai Su (Ken Su) 2013-14 $130,000 Labor Party (federal).


2013-14 $70,000 Labor Party (NSW branch)


Huang Jiebo 2013-14 $200,000 Liberal Party


Fiona Huang Jiefang 2013-14 $100,000 Liberal Party


Lawrence Kung Chin Yuan 2013-14 $200,000 Labor Party (Queensland branch)


David Lin Chun-hong 2013-14 $134,000 Liberal National Party (Queensland)


Guo Wen Cheng 2013-14 $100,000 Labor Party (NSW branch)


Hudson Chen Hak Fan 2013-14 $100,000 Liberal Party (NSW branch)


CST Mining Group 2013-14 $50,000 Liberal Party


Luo Chuangxiong 2013-14 $50,000    Labor Party

                                2013-14  $150,000 Labor Party (NSW branch)


To Wing 2013-14 $20,000 Labor Party


Jiang Zhaoqing 2013-14 $260,000 Labor Party


Mandy Lee Real Estate 2013-14 $20,000 Labor Party


New Idea Furniture 2013-14 $33,000 Labor Party


Bon Bon Bakery 2013-14 $27,500 Labor Party


Hualin Investment 2013-14 $23,600 Labor Party


AXF Group 2013-14 $33,000 Labor Party


JD International 2013-14 $20,000 Labor Party


APEC Links 2013-14 $20,000 Labor Party


Grand City 2013-14 $18,000 Labor Party


Han-Ming Australia 2013-14 $20,000 Labor Party


AGF Group 2013-14 $8,800 Labor Party


United Mining Resources 2013-14 $5,500 Labor Party


Illusion Auto Supply 2013-14 $10,000 Labor Party


Peter Chan 2013-14 $200,000 Labor Party


Ever Bright Group 2014-15 $200,000 Liberal Party


Jiandong Huang 2014-15 $200,000 Liberal Party .


Yuhu Group 2014-15 $20,000 Liberal Party


Jianping and Min Fu Zhang 2014-15 $200,000 Labor Party (Victorian Branch)


Jianping and Min Fu Zhang 2014-15 $100,000 Labor Party (Victorian Branch)


Yilin Zhu 2014-15 $50,000 Labor Party


Eng Joo Ang 2014-15 $110,000 Labor Party (NSW branch)


Nine Dragons 2014-15 $20,000 Labor Party (Victorian Branch)


Source: ABC Reporters Chris Uhlmann and Andrew Greene Chinese donors to Australian political parties: who gave how much? Updated 8 Jun 2017 Online access 27/12/2018 at https://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-08-21/china-australia-political-donations/7766654